THE CYPHERNOMICON: Cypherpunks FAQ and More, Version 0.666,
1994-09-10, Copyright Timothy C. May. All rights reserved.
See the detailed disclaimer. Use short sections under « fair use » provisions, with appropriate credit, but don’t put your name on my words.
– The Cypherpunks have existed since September, 1992. In that time, a vast amount has been written on cryptography, key escrow, Clipper, the Net, the Information Superhighway, cyber terrorists, and crypto anarchy. We have found ourselves (or placed ourselves) at the center of the storm.
– This FAQ may help to fill in some gaps about what we’re about, what motivates us, and where we’re going. And maybe some useful knowledge on crypto, remailers, anonymity, digital cash, and other interesting things.
>> Read more: cyphernomicon.txt
Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System
A purely peer-to-peer version of electronic cash would allow online payments to be sent directly from one party to another without going through a financial institution. Digital signatures provide part of the solution, but the main benefits are lost if a trusted third party is still required to prevent double-spending. We propose a solution to the double-spending problem using a peer-to-peer network. The network timestamps transactions by hashing them into an ongoing chain of hash-based proof-of-work, forming a record that cannot be changed without redoing the proof-of-work. The longest chain not only serves as proof of the sequence of events witnessed, but proof that it came from the largest pool of CPU power. As long as a majority of CPU power is controlled by nodes that are not cooperating to attack the network, they’ll generate the longest chain and outpace attackers. The network itself requires minimal structure. Messages are broadcast on a best effort basis, and nodes can leave and rejoin the network at will, accepting the longest proof-of-work chain as proof of what happened while they were gone.
>> Download the BitcoinWhitepaper
The Politics of the Bitcoin Blockchain by Brett Scott
(…) It all starts to sounds quite sci-fi, but organisations such as Ethereum are leading the charge on building ‘decentralised autonomous organisations’14 – hardcoded entities that people can interact with, but that nobody in particular controls. (…)
>> Download Visions of a Techno-Leviathan
The techno-economic imaginaries of a new money technology by Lana Swartz
(…) Bitcoin is not primarily an alternative to state-backed money but an alternative to private payment intermediaries that seek to control and survey its passage. It affords a cooperativist vision of a money technology and therefore society. (…)
>> Download What was Bitcoin
Technologies & Social Contract Theories by Wessel Reijers, Fiachra O’Brolcháin, Paul Haynes
(…) The General Will, in Rousseau’s conception, is primarily concerned with the common interest, in contrast with the “will of all” as implemented in blockchain governance, which is no more than the sum of the individual wills of its members. (…)
>> Download Governance in Blockchain Technologies
or ‘how to solve the tyranny of majority created by the one-person-one-vote rule’
by Steven P. Lalley and E. Glen Weyl
>> Download Quadratic_Voting.pdf
What makes Quadratic Voting an effective Democratic Voting Mechanism by Eximchain, Aug. 2018
>> Read the article
>> Watch My presentation at Moneylab#7
Formes pratiques /Practical Forms: DAOs
Problèmes et solutions /Issues and solutions
Countering collusion and plutocracy, Vitalik Buterin at ETHNY, 2019
Notre premier invité, le 6 février 2020, était Jonas Lund pour son projet le Jonas Lund Token par lequel il décentralise et autonomise sa pratique artistique // Our first guest on February 6, 2020, was Jonas Lund for his decentralized autonomous artistic practice through the Jonas Lund Token project
« Artists Re:thinking the Blockchain » is a landmark publication that brings together a diverse array of artists and researchers engaged with the blockchain, unpacking, critiquing and marking the arrival of it on the cultural landscape for a broad readership across the arts and humanities.
In this session of the Moneylab held last November in Amsterdam, Ruth Catlow explores the spaces of convergence between the Commons and P2P movements along with the world of cooperatives and the Social and Solidarity Economy. Watch her talk here
The DisCO Manifesto is a deep dive into the world of Distributed Cooperative Organizations.
Notre quatrième invitée, le 6 mai 2020, était Penny Rafferty, notamment co-fondatrice de Black Swan et d’Ishtar Gate// Our fourth guest on May 6, 2020, was Penny Rafferty, cofounder of Black Swan and Ishtar Gate
Penny Rafferty, a writer and visual theorist based in Berlin, is one of the co-founders of the blockchain-based micro-economy-in-the-arts platforms Ishtar Gate and The Black Swan DAO. She co-develops the think tank series Artworld DAO’s with Ruth Catlow in coordination with The Serpentine and Futherfield and continues to work as both an auditor and researcher in the tech cultural field. Her theoretical essays and creative texts have been commissioned for Cura, Kaleidoscope Magazine, Keen on, Taz.de NRW Dusseldorf, Flash Art and Elephant Magazine amongst others. She was the in-house critic at STATISTA Berlin, a KW+ZK/U initiative, in 2019.
Ishtar Gate is a prototype for a different form of online interaction with critical material building a more passive approach to what might be generally known as “attention economy,”. Its users are rewarded for participating in this prototypical economy of passivity with Ishtar, a local cryptocurrency token based on the Ethereum ERC20 standard that can eventually be exchanged for goods and services in the real world, be it a coffee or a studio space, within a network of participating Berlin-based institutions.
Black Swan is a DAO of local ambition that aims to put the unused resources of Berlin’s institutions, be they budgetary, material, spatial or even social, to the benefit of the city’s artists.
This decentralized and autonomous community that provides a collegial decision-making environment for the allocation of the funds raised is implemented by artists Penny Rafferty, Calum Bowden, Max Hampshire and Paul Seidler, curator Cathrin Mayer and critic Chloe Stead.
Read the proto-white paper: BlackSwan
Notre cinquième invitée, le 6 juin 2020, était la Trojan DAO, première DAO artistique en activité // Our fifth guest on June 6, 2020, was the Trojan DAO, the first artistic DAO to get in action, just a year ago!
The Trojan DAO is a Decentralized Autonomous Organization, a new breed of human organization.
The Trojan DAO is born from immutable, unstoppable, and irrefutable computer code, operated entirely by its members. It is a decentralized structure, an organization where governance and decision making systems are programmed on the Ethereum blockchain, effectively removing the need for a central governing authority.
The Trojan DAO is an art project, it is an experiment to re-imagine the DAO code as an interactive artwork, as a collective performance, that poses the question: Can an art organization exist without managers, employees, bureaucracy or even a formal head office? Can it be run in a decentralized and autonomous way?
The Trojan DAO is launched by a group of artists in Athens, and their collaborators from the blockchain space, as a vehicle for creating collaborative art events and projects, encoding their shared values.
The Trojan DAO functions beyond borders, and it cannot be censored. The Trojan DAO seeks to scale the organizational form of the assembly, where all active participants have a say in how funds from a shared pool are used to achieve shared goals, without there being fixed roles, gatekeepers, committees and expensive bureaucracies.
La DAK a parcouru beaucoup de chemin depuis ma première invitation à ses membres fondateurs en mars dernier, elle a mis en œuvre son premier vote on-chain pour soutenir un projet artistique, il y a tout juste 3 semaines, l’occasion d’entrer dans les détails !
Come chat with them!
The DAK has come a long way since my first invitation to its founding members last March, it has implemented its first on-chain vote to support an artistic project, just 3 weeks ago, it’s the opportunity to go into details!!
The Decentralized Autonomous Kunstverein (DAK) is an art association inspired by developments in blockchain technology and the unique Kunstverein tradition of non-profit art associations in Germany. Being a Decentralized Autonomous Organization (DAO), the DAK is a net-based organization that is directed and funded by its members on a voluntary basis, without a permanent space or home jurisdiction, initiating projects however and wherever on the globe its members decide.
>> Read the DAK bylaws
The DAK’s mission is to promote experimental approaches to creating and curating contemporary art, exploring the potential of decentralized collective work within the context of contemporary art and technology. To fulfill this purpose, the members of the DAK collectively work to finance and curate exhibitions, screenings, performances and related programming.
Entry code to the chat: DontComeUnlessInvited
The DAK operates on transparent communication, decision making and execution of all operations in a direct democratic structure without any central judicature, geographically oriented or otherwise. In doing so, the DAK will not rely on the laws of any state or central authority, nor recognize itself as a part of any jurisdiction beyond its diffused membership. Juridical systems that rule over a particular locale where physical exhibitions or other events take place will be considered temporary and contextual to that specific event and cannot apply to the totality of the organization itself.